Foot Deformities


A bunion (hallux valgus) is a sometimes painful structural deformity of the bones and the joint between the foot and big toe. A bunion is an enlargement of bone or tissue around the joint at the base of the big toe (metatarsophalangeal joint). The big toe may turn in toward the secone toe (displacement), and the tissues surrounding the joint may be swollen and tender. Treatment is either conservative (i.e. orthotic therapy) in order to stop the progression or surgical if symptomatic.


A hammer toe is a deformity of the second, third, or fourth toe, causing it to be permanently bent at the proximal interphalangeal joint, resembling a hammer.

Hallux Limitus

When the big toe (hallux) loses range of motion it is called Hallux limitus. This may cause pain in the joint and can lead to painful calluses, bunions, and arthritis. Treatment includes orthotic therapy and footwear.

Flat foot/Pes Planus

Flat feet, also called pes planus or fallen arches, is a condition in which the arch of the foot collapses, with the entire sole of the foot coming into complete or near-complete contact with the ground. In some individuals (an estimated 20-30% of the general population) the arch simply never develops in one foot (unilaterally) or both feet (bilaterally).